|DEFORESTATION RESEARCHED DONE BY A MUSLIM|
|Published by Maularna|
|Tuesday, 01 May 2012 05:43|
The world without the forest is like a tree without the fruits. Forest is Allah creation which has been made before human. Forest has live for a thousand decades or even before that. Human will never know how long forest has been created by Allah because only He knew it.In a hadith said that those who cut the bidara tree in open spaces without any cause, when it became a shelter for the musafir and animals, then Allah lower his head in the fire of Allah.This shows that Allah really meant human need to take care the forest. Year by year forest are extinct through the globalization human made. Globalization has taken the world more than 100 years since the Rasulullah time but the globalization became more aggressive since the technology world came. This statement conclude that globalization and technology cannot be separate or apart. Because of technology too deforestation occurred. Deforestation occurred along with technology and globalization which shows technology is the main cause for worlds current issues. Forest has many important to the world. They produce biodiversity to help maintaining the world. Occurring of water cycle is one of the part of forest. Forest assets are a part of regional economy. Besides that forest help in pursue a wide range of traditional livelihoods.
Deforestation is the destruction of vest area of forest by human without planting new growth to produce new plantation of forest. Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. However in temperate climates, the removal of all trees in an area is correctly described as regeneration harvest. Deforestation has taken part all over the world since 100 years ago but became more aggressive about 50 years ago. In other word deforestation means people cut the tree in forest and use them in many ways but they did not planting any new growth or trees because they just want to obtain profit. Globalization means increasingly global relationships of culture, people and economics activities. The United Nations ESCWA says globalization is the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of good, capital, services and labour. Tom G. Palmer of the Cato Institute refers globalization as the diminution or elimination of state-enforced restrictions on exchanges across borders and increasingly integrated and complex global system of production and the exchange has emerged as a result.
Some of the examples for deforestation are unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing, and over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. The examples for globalization are the highway for the car, the growth of housing area and the use of hybrid car. From FAO’s Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 said that the loss of tropical forest has been about 9.3 million hectares all over the world. This size proved that the loss is larger than the size of Scotland. Brazil has the largest deforestation and Malaysia supply about 85% of the global market. The good news about forest is deforestation has dropped 20% previous 10 years period. Globalization began towards the end of the nineteenth century, but it slowed down during the period from the start of the First World War until the third quarter of the twentieth century. However, the pace of globalization picked up rapidly during the fourth quarter of twentieth century.
Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees or derived charcoal are used as, or sold, for fuel or as timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. Disregard or ignorance of intrinsic value, lack of ascribed value, lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation to occur on a large scale. Deforestation occurred when the failure of the world’s market economy to award any value to the intrinsic environmental assets of the rainforest. The degradation of forest ecosystems has also been traced to economic incentives that make forest conversion appear more profitable than forest conservation. Logging activity on extracting timber resources for business and inventors has become one of the reasons of deforestation. In other hand, week national governance prevalent in developing countries causes deforestation. The widespread lack of electricity and the use of forest timber for charcoal and wood fuel are the causes of deforestation. According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat, the overwhelming direct cause of deforestation is agriculture.
Subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial agriculture is responsible for 32% of deforestation; logging is responsible for 14% of deforestation and fuel wood removals make up 5% of deforestation. Population growth, overpopulation and urbanization are some of the reason for deforestation. Deforestation has also been used in war to deprive an enemy of cover for its forces and also vital resources. For example, the use of Agent orange in Vietnam. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland. Globalization is often viewed as another root cause of deforestation, though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization have promoted localized forest recovery. By the 1990s the majority of deforestation was caused by industrial factors, including extractive industries, large-scale ranching and extensive agriculture. Climate change is one of the causes of deforestation too.
Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate. Climate change means a significant and lasting change of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions years. Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcing or “forcing mechanisms”. Forcing mechanisms can be either "internal" or "external". Internal forcing mechanisms are natural processes within the climate system itself. External forcing mechanisms can be either natural (e.g., changes in solar output) or anthropogenic (e.g., increased emissions of greenhouse gases). Maybe it change in average weather conditions or distributes the events around the average. Climate change may limited to specific region or the whole earth
Greenhouse gases emissions has been released for 17.4% in form of carbon dioxide for a year. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deforestation, mainly in tropical areas, could account for up to one-third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions.
The scientific indicates the climate change is changing because of human activities and it is largely irreversible.
Trees and other plants remove carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis and release oxygen back into the atmosphere during normal respiration. Only when actively growing can a tree or forest removes carbon over an annual or longer timeframe. Both the decay and burning of wood releases much of this stored carbon back to the atmosphere. In order for forests to take up carbon, the wood must be harvested and turned into long-lived products and trees must be re-planted. Deforestation may cause carbon stores held in soil to be released. Forests are stores of carbon and can be either sinks or sources depending upon environmental circumstances. Mature forests alternate between being net sinks and net sources of carbon dioxide (see carbon dioxide sink and carbon cycle). In deforested areas, the land heats up faster and reaches a higher temperature, leading to localized upward motions that enhance the formation of clouds and ultimately produce more rainfall. Volcanic eruptions have released enough gases and particulates into the atmosphere which affects the weather several times per century and cause cooling by blocking the solar radiation for a few years. Carbon dioxide from volcanic emissions is much lower than the effects of human activities which are 100-300 times more than the eruptions.
Carbon dioxide levels increase due to emissions of fossil fuel combustion, aerosols and cement manufacture. In a 2006 news story, BBC reported, “...if China and India were to consume as much resources per capita as United States or Japan in 2030 together they would require a full planet Earth to meet their needs”.
The statement proves that climate change affected the sources of earth.Through globalization, deforestation occurred and many impacts have seen from those activities. The most dramatic impact is a loss of habitat for millions of species. Seventy percent of Earth’s land animals and plants live in forests, and many cannot survive the deforestation that destroys their homes. Losing of habitat for millions of species because of the globalization on housing area, deforestation on logging and for the transportation. Removing trees deprives the forest of portions of its canopy, which blocks the sun’s rays during the day and holds in heat at night. Earth temperature swings more extreme which are harmful to plants and animals and can bring disease. Trees also play a critical role in absorbing the greenhouse gases that fuel global warming. Fewer forests means larger amounts of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere and increased speed and severity of global warming. Greenhouse gases entering atmosphere can occur harmful environment for people and any living organisms. Through globalization and deforestation can cause global warming which will produce harmful gases around human being and animal that can extinct the population in earth. Otherwise, there is an effect on economic which produce a situation for the developing countries because the rapid growth that control the globalization of the countries and cause the deforestation through expansion of cities, new homes and population. Globalization impacts on the deforestation will occur the ecological, air, forest, population growth on food, minerals, health and materialism problem. Fresh water and minerals will be gone before 2037, the higher level on carbon dioxide and sulfur oxides in the atmosphere, tropical rainforest will harvest in 13-16 years more, society will face high standard of living, people will have more diseases and world will run out of food in 2048. Globalism substantially increased pollution and impact on water resources. State of the World 2006 report said India and China's high economic growth was not sustainable. The report stated: The world's ecological capacity is simply insufficient to satisfy the ambitions of China, India, Japan, Europe and the United States as well as the aspirations of the rest of the world in a sustainable way. In a 2006 news story, BBC reported, "...if China and India were to consume as much resources per capita as United States or Japan in 2030 together they would require a full planet Earth to meet their needs. In the long-term these effects can lead to increased conflict over dwindling resources and in the worst case a Malthusian catastrophe.
These impacts grow fear in the society to face the upcoming life style.Major international organizations, including the United Nations and the World Bank, have begun to develop programs aimed at curbing deforestation. Therefore, they are some solution. Governments are tended to be more concern in national poverty reduction strategies to help maintaining the forest poverty. Furthermore, they need to secure a weak non-legally binding international agreement on forest sustainability to protect the forest from extinct. People are encouraging stop cutting the trees and use the recycle products. Consumer campaigns on forest protection will realize the people to prevent their selves from causing deforestation. Community need to build community forestry to generate morality on forest into themselves. Management of forest tended to be more concern and aggressive to provide enough forest poverty to people and earth. Through plantation 10 cubic meters per hectare could supply all the timber required for international trade on 5% of the world’s existing forestland
By creating market demand for timber from sustainably managed forests. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),"A major condition for the adoption of sustainable forest management is a demand for products that are produced sustainably and consumer willingness to pay for the higher costs entailed. Certification represents a shift from regulatory approaches to market incentives to promote sustainable forest management. By promoting the positive attributes of forest products from sustainably managed forests, certification focuses on the demand side of environmental conservation.
Farming can help in controlling deforestation by high-yield hybrid crops, greenhouse, autonomous building gardens, and hydroponics. Doing cyclic agriculture, cattle are grazed on farm land that is resting and rejuvenating. Cyclic agriculture actually increases the fertility of the soil. Intensive farming can also decrease soil nutrients by consuming at an accelerated rate the trace minerals needed for crop growth. Reducing the emission can help in providing a healthy environment for human and animals to breath and live into it.
As human being that Allah created with brain and mind, we need to think how to solve the climate change. There are some ways to help in reducing emissions such as monitoring and verifying progress by reference to a baseline rate of deforestation by government and the authorities. The blanket term Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) describes these sorts of programs, which use direct monetary or other incentives to encourage developing countries to limit or roll back deforestation. It remote forest monitoring using satellite imagery and other data sources, include the Center for Global Development's FORMA (Forest Monitoring for Action) initiative and the Group on Earth Observations' Forest Carbon Tracking Portal. Methodological guidance for forest monitoring was also emphasized at COP-15. In evaluating implications of overall emissions reductions, countries of greatest concern are those categorized as High Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation and Low Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation. Afghanistan, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Indonesia, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mongolia, Myanmar(Burma), Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zimbabwe are listed as Low Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation. Brazil, Cambodia, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Equatorial Guinea, Malaysia, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Venezuela, Zambia are listed as High Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation. When doing the agreement for the forest poverty, we need to make the agreement go beyond the basic goal of reducing the deforestation because we need to protect the forest beyond anything as it is one of the trusts given by Allah. Emissions can be reducing by doing implementation on rules and regulations of baseline of deforestation.
In my point of view, deforestation in the globalization world cannot be apart because the relationship is too strong. When we are going through the globalization we need to modify our countries and that need some deforestation. By contrast, we can help in controlling the deforestation from being worst and forest still can be used by the next generations. Globalization needs too much modification and as human we need to face all this but we still can prevent it. In the world's poorest countries, availability of clean water has decreased between 1990 and 2000 in both urban and rural setting due to globalization. Infectious diseases such as SARS and Ebola have traveled throughout the world due to increased world trade and tourism. Deforestation has occurred in many countries and the problem become worst last 10 years but then it better. A survey in October, 2009 by the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press showed decreasing public perception in the US that deforestation was a serious problem. All political persuasions showed reduced concern with lowest concern among Republicans, only 35% of whom considered there to be solid evidence of deforestation. There are many ways we can use to prevent and control the deforestation through the globalization era. There are many agencies or associates we can join to help deforestation from happening again in the present. So, there are no any excuses for community to escape from helping controlling and reducing the deforestation. In the nut shell, deforestation need to be control, prevent and reduce by all community, authorities, government and people. Environmental organizations and public figures have emphasized changes in the climate and the risks they entail, while promoting adaptation to changes in infrastructural needs and emissions reductions. Reforestation and globalization need to walk together in order to have the balance life and balance world. Country gains respects by globalization but when they do the deforestation their respects become lower. By doing the ways to control deforestation we can obtain respects and benefits from Allah’s site. Therefore, all people need to do implementation on reducing deforestation to have a better life.
 Drmaza.com/arkib_utusan/ Abu Dawud, SunanAbiDaud 4/361, Beirut: Dar al-Fikr
 Summary of the Annual Review of Developments in Globalization and Regional Integration in the Countries of the ESCWA Region by the United Nation Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
 UNFCCC (2007): Investment and Financial flows to address climate change, unfcc int. UNFCC page 81.
 Susanna B. Hecht, Susan Kendal, Ileana Gomes, Nelson Cuellar and Herman Rosa (2006), Globalization, Forest Resurgence and Environmental Politics in El Salvador, World Development: 308-323
ArildAngelsen, David Kaimowitz (February 1999). "Rethinking the causes of deforestation: Lessons from economic models". The World Bank Research Observer, 14:1. Oxford University Press. pp. 73–98
Rudel, T.K. 2005 “Tropical Forest: Regional Paths of Destruction and Regeneration in The Late 20th Century”, Columbia university, press ISBN 023113195X
IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group I Report "The Physical Science Basis", Section 18.104.22.168.5
|Last Updated on Tuesday, 01 May 2012 05:54|